Diseases of the cardiovascular system have the leading positions. They are increasingly found in young, able-bodied, at first glance, healthy people. One of these diseases is arterial hypertension.
Definition and symptoms
Arterial hypertension is characterized by a steady increase in blood pressure. This is an asymptomatic affliction, therefore it is still called ´the silent killer´. A person for a long time can not guess that he has high blood pressure, and the disease in the meantime will progress.
Pressure within 120/80 mm Hg. is considered to be the norm for a healthy person. The pressure rise to 139/89 mm Hg. is not harmful to health and life. Indicators above this value indicate a pathology in the circulatory system, and the development of arterial hypertension.
Over time, at a constant high pressure, the process of damaging the walls of blood vessels starts, and cracks form in them. Cholesterol begins to enter these cracks, and thus atherosclerotic plaques are formed. They clog the blood vessels. Gradually, the vessels become brittle, resulting in hemorrhages in different organs.
In the first and second stages of the disease a person most often does not feel any symptoms. Hypertension manifests itself when pathologies begin in different organs. As a rule, in the first place, high blood pressure has a negative effect on the brain, heart, kidneys, eyes and lower limbs. This leads to hypertrophy of the heart, kidney failure, heart attacks, strokes and other complications.
Symptoms of hypertension often include headache, weakness, a feeling of tightness in the heart, dizziness.
- Excess weight. Normally, the waist of women should not exceed 88 centimeters, and for men – 94 centimeters.
- Inactive way of life.
- Excessive consumption of salt.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Kidney disease.
- Narrowing of the renal arteries.
- Diseases of the adrenal glands.
- Uncontrolled use of medicines.
- Stress and psychoemotional overstrain.
- Lack of magnesium in the body.
- Constant lack of sleep.
- Smoking, alcohol abuse.
Diagnosis and treatment
Periodically, it is necessary to measure blood pressure with a special device – a tonometer at home. The diagnosis of “arterial hypertension” can correctly be made only by a specialist on the basis of a stable increase in blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg.
To identify the factors that provoke the development of the disease, the doctor sends the patient to a comprehensive diagnosis. It includes the registration of an electrocardiogram, ultrasound of the heart, kidneys, abdominal cavity, an analysis of the level of creatine in the blood to exclude renal pathology, assessment of the fundus, a blood test for cholesterol and glucose tolerance. In addition, the doctor makes a medical history during a conversation with the patient.
Taking into account all the above results, the specialist selects the correct treatment regimen for a particular patient. Doing self-medication with this disease is dangerous for health and life.
Unfortunately, hypertension refers to the category of chronic diseases, it is completely impossible to cure it yet. However, you can monitor the pressure, clearly following the instructions of the doctor.
In the treatment of hypertension of the 1st degree, non-drug treatment based on the correction of nutrition, on increasing physical activity, on refusal from smoking and alcohol is used. For patients with grade 2 and 3 hypertension, these recommendations are also very relevant.
Drug treatment is used at 2 and 3 degrees of hypertension. At the second stage of the disease, a specialist prescribes one drug. At 3 degrees, as a rule, the attending physician combines several medicines.
The treatment of arterial hypertension must be approached responsibly. The intake of all drugs should be strictly according to the scheme drawn up by the doctor. This is the only way to successfully control the disease and lead an active life.
Preventive maintenance of the given disease, first of all, consists in a choice of a healthy way of life and a healthy food. This involves smoking cessation, not alcohol abuse, frequent outdoor walks, high physical activity.
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The diet should reduce the amount of salt, because it leads to a delay in water in the body, to give up excessively fatty and fried foods. In the diet it is recommended to include mushrooms, since they contain a lot of potassium. Celery expands blood vessels and is also rich in potassium. Flax seeds are known for their high content of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids. They have a beneficial effect on blood vessels.
Do not forget that any disease is better to prevent than treat.
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