Prevention of diseases is one of the most important tasks of modern healthcare, it is laid down in a number of state programs. In addition, even the usual hygienic skills and the right way of life can have a preventive effect.
Diseases Prevention – Personal Health Care
A person from an early age can be prone to various diseases. They affect the life expectancy and its quality, reduce work capacity and even become the cause of disability and social and domestic helplessness. Some diseases are characterized by high mortality, others increase the risk of birth of offspring with various abnormalities, others make the person ill become dangerous to others and can lead to epidemics. In many cases, preventive measures can prevent the development of diseases or make their prognosis more favorable.
What is prevention?
Prevention of diseases is a complex of medical and non-medical measures of a preventative and improving nature. Its main tasks are:
- prevention of the appearance of various pathological conditions;
- minimization of the effect of various risk factors;
- reducing the risk of complications of emerging diseases;
- decrease in the rate of disease progression;
- prevention of chronic diseases and the development of secondary diseases;
- decrease in severity of negative consequences of the transferred diseases;
- general health promotion.
Competent and comprehensive prevention in general can reduce the incidence and risk of various epidemics, reduce the duration of emerging diseases and quickly restore work capacity.
Prevention is not just some special medical appointments appointed by a doctor. Daily hygiene, healthy lifestyle, the correct organization of the workplace and the observance of certain rules during periods of epidemics also help prevent the development of many diseases. Even care for the environment and refers to preventive measures.
In addition to individual prevention of diseases, preventive and recreational activities can be conducted at the level of the state, regions, municipalities. Some of them are provided by the employer or by a system of medical and preventive institutions.
What is prevention?
According to WHO definitions, several types of prevention are identified. Primary – a variety of measures aimed at eliminating risk factors for the entire population and early detection of diseases in certain groups. It includes various preventive examinations, vaccination, hygiene education and health education. It also refers to the improvement of working conditions in industries and enterprises, improving the overall environmental situation and the microclimate of dwellings.
Secondary disease prevention is necessary to identify and treat diseases in the early stages in the presence of risk factors. At the same time, targeted preventive examinations, clinical examination, preventive treatment and rehabilitation of certain social or labor groups are used. Also, in secondary prevention, education and sanitary-hygienic education of patients, their relatives and persons at risk are provided. To do this, profile information-training programs (schools) are created, aimed at people with certain diseases. It can be diabetes, dementia (dementia), hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis and many other pathologies with a potentially severe course.
Tertiary prevention is carried out after confirmation of the main diagnosis. It improves the prognosis and facilitates the course of the disease. The complex of measures carried out at the same time is aimed at the maximum possible restoration of work capacity and preservation of social and everyday activity of a person. It is also necessary to medico-psychological adaptation of the sick person to his changed needs and opportunities.
In general, all types of disease prevention can be further divided into activities of a personal nature, medical and public. It is important to adhere to an integrated approach, focusing on maintaining your health and strengthening the body’s defenses.
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Basic measures of individual prevention
Prevention should begin before the first signs of deterioration of health, without waiting for specialized recommendations of the doctor. And at the same time, the main risk factors are at first excluded or at least minimized. General disease prevention may include:
- compliance with personal hygiene;
- refusal to smoke and drink strong spirits;
- increase of general motor activity, regular exercise of physical culture or gymnastics;
- cleaning your own home from dust, potential allergens and toxins, regular airing and humidifying the air in the apartments;
- transition to a balanced full-fledged diet, while it is important to consider the composition of food, its calorie content and the type of heat treatment used;
- use appropriate clothing for the season and weather;
- regular passage of complex preventive examinations, including visits to a doctor, laboratory and instrumental examinations;
- routine preventive vaccination according to the national vaccination schedule, as well as additional vaccination before threatening epidemics or travel to countries in Asia and Africa;
- the competent organization of the workplace;
- observance of the regime of work and rest, as well as natural biological cycles of sleep-wakefulness;
- avoidance of personal-significant stressful situations, timely access to a specialist for solving internal psychological conflicts;
- use of natural factors for hardening, strengthening of local protective barriers of the skin and mucous membranes.
In childhood, preventive measures are organized and controlled by parents or substitutes for adults. And the obligatory components are the education of proper hygienic habits, routine examinations and vaccination taking into account the state of the child’s health, observance of the daily routine. It is also important to control the correctness of the placement of children at the table during classes, to ensure harmonious physical and psycho-emotional development.
What should everyone do?
In general, the main preventive measures fit into the concept of a healthy lifestyle and compliance with basic sanitary and hygienic rules. In this exercise, swimming pool, daily walking have a training effect on the cardiovascular system. It also supports the functional activity of all parts of the musculoskeletal system, which, together with the strengthening of the muscular corset, prevents early wear of intervertebral discs and large joints. Proper nutrition is the prevention of digestive tract diseases, hypovitaminosis, obesity and metabolic disorders. A quit smoking can significantly reduce the risk of lung cancer, esophagus and stomach, bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular diseases.
To prevent infection during the ARVI season, doctors recommend to avoid possible accumulation of people whenever possible, regularly wash your nose and gargle with weakly saline solutions, often wash your hands. It is advisable to use personal protective equipment when visiting public places, changing them every 1.5-2 hours. It is also desirable to often carry out wet cleaning and airing of living quarters.
If a person is at risk for developing a particular disease, additional preventive measures may be required. It can be taking medications, sanatorium treatment, observance of a special diet. Such prevention of diseases is carried out at the doctor’s prescription and is usually supplemented by regular medical examinations with regular targeted examinations.
Certainly, certain preventive measures are guaranteed by the state and the CHI system. Nevertheless, many diseases can be prevented, from a young age adhering to the right way of life, taking care of hardening and observing the rules of personal hygiene.
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